Copyright and Intellectual Property

This is a select bibliography of books and articles that I have come across that have helped me to get a handle on some of the issues that are involved in the intersection of copyright and traditional music. This is a resource for everybody. If you come across a reference on your travels that you think should be here, please tell me (||tannaccm). It is in no way comprehensive, although I eventually hope to put up a reference for everything I have found useful.

Anthony McCann's Music and Copyright Ph.D. dissertation (

1964. "Conference on Character and State of Studies in Folklore." Journal of American Folklore 59(234):524-527.

1974. "P.A. Report." The Bookseller (March 30):1762-1763.

1985. "Regional Committee of Experts on Means of Implementation in the Arab States of Model Provisions on Intellectual Aspects of Protection of Expressions of Folklore." Copyright Bulletin XIX(2):15-21.

1985. "Group of Experts on the International Protection of Expressions of Folklore by Intellectual Property." Copyright Bulletin XIX(2):22-33.

1985. "Text of the Draft Treaty for the Protection of Expressions of Folklore Against Illicit Exploitation and Other Prejudicial Actions." Copyright Bulletin XIX(2):34-38.

1985. "Second Committee of Governmental Experts on the Safeguarding of Folklore." Copyright Bulletin XIX(2):39-49.

1985. "National Seminar on Copyright (Brazzaville, Congo, 4-8 March 1985)." Copyright Bulletin XIX(2):50.

1990."The Prince & Paupers: Who gets how much out of what in the performing rights lottery of musical life?" The Music Magazine 1:50.

1991. Copyright and Neighbouring Rights in the European Community. Strasbourg: Commission of the European Communities.

1993. The Mini-encyclopedia of Public Domain Songs. New York: BZ/Rights Stuff.

J. Attali. 1985. Noise: The Political Economy of Music. Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.

J. L. Avery. 1991. "The Struggle Over Performing Rights to Music: BMI and ASCAP vs. Cable Television." Comm/Ent 14(1):47.

L. Bannon. 1996. "Birds sing, but campers can't - unless they pay up." Wall Street Journal, August 21

D. Baskerville. 1995. Music Business Handbook and Career guide. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

L. E. Berk. 1970. Legal Protection for the Creative Musician. Boston: Berklee Press.

S. M. Besen and S. N. Kirby. 1989. "Compensating Creators of Intellectual Property: Collectives That Collect." Santa Monica: The RAND Corporation.

K. Blaukopf. 1990. "Legal Policies for the Safeguarding of Traditional Music: Are they Utopian?" The World of Music XXXII(1):125-133.

G. D. Boos. 1977. "The Wreck of the Old "97": a Study in Copyright Protection of Folksongs for Lawyers, Folklorists and Songwriters." Seattle Folklore Society Journal 9(1):3-18.

M. Breen. 1993. "Making it Visible: The 1990 Public Inquiry into Australian Music Copyrights." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. Pp. 99-124. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

M. Buitenhuis. 1997. "Copyright, Copywrong." Sing Out! 42(2):3-4.

S. Carter. 1960. "A Reel of Recording Tape." Sing Out! 10(4):36.

R. Caves. 2000. Economics of the Creative Industries. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

M. Chanan. 1994. Musica Practica: The Social Practice of Western Music from Gregorian Chant to Postmodernism. London: Verso.

J. Cohen and M. Seeger, eds. 1964. New Lost City Ramblers Song Book. New York: Oak Publications.

J. Collins. 1993. "The Problem of Oral Copyright: The Case of Ghana." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. 146-158. Edinburgh Law and Society Series. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

J. H. Collins. 1997. "When in Doubt, Do Without: Licensing Public Performances by Nonprofit Camping or Volunteer Service Organizations under Federal Copyright Law." Washington University Law Quarterly 75(3):1277ff.

O. W. Coon. 1971. "Some Problems With Musical Public-Domain Materials under United States Copyright Law as Illustrated Mainly by the Recent Folk-Song Revival." In Copyright Law Symposium: Number Nineteen (Nathan Burkan Memorial Competition) Sponsored by the American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers. 189-218. New York: Columbia University Press.

M. Cooney. 1995. "On "Author's Royalties"."The Friendship Letter, p. 5.

J. Coover. 1985. Music Publishing, Copyright and Piracy in Victorian England. London and New York: Mansell Publishing.

D. Crawford. 1977. "Gospel Songs in Court: From Rural Music to Rural Industry." Journal of Popular Culture 11(3):551-567.

C. Cutler. 1996. "Plunderphonics." In Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. 67-85. New York: Autonomedia.

G. Davies and M. E. Hung. 1993. Music and Video Private Copying: An International Survey of the Problem and the Law. London: Sweet and Maxwell.

C. Ehrlich. 1989. Harmonious Alliance: A History of the Performing Right Society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

C. Elliker. 1999. "Toward a definition of sheet music." Notes 55(4):835-860.

F. Fabbri. 1993. "Copyright: The Dark Side of the Music Business." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. 159-163. Edinburgh Law and Society Series. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

S. Feld. 1996. "pygmy POP: A Genealogy of Schizophonic Mimesis." International Yearbook of Traditional Music XXVIII:1-35.

M. V. Felton. 1978. "The Economics of the Creative Arts: The Case of the Composer." Journal of Cultural Economics 2(1):41-62.

S. Frith. 1987. "Copyright and the Music Business." Popular Music 7(1):57-75.
—-. 1993. "Music and Morality." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. 1-21. Edinburgh Law and Society Series. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

S. Frith, ed. 1993. Music and Copyright. Edinburgh Law and Society Series. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

J. M. Gaines. 1991. Contested Culture: The Image, The Voice, and The Law. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press.

D. Glaister. 1998. "Pick 'n' mix CDs go online at cut-prices in Levi's outlets." Dublin: The Irish Times, June 19. P. 11.

J. Goodell. 1999. "World War MP3." Rolling Stone, July 8-22. Pp. 43-46.

C. Gooding. 1961. "Concerning Copyrights." Sing Out! 11(1):24.

A. Goodwin and J. Gore. 1996. "World Beat and the Cultural Imperialism Debate." In Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. Pp. 121-131. New York: Autonomedia.

B. Green. 1998. "Haven't I Heard This Song Before?: Subconscious Plagiarism in Pop Music and the Infringement of Copyright - Towards a Partial Defense of Cryptomnesia." Intellectual Property Journal 13(November):53-81.

K. J. Greene. 1999. "Copyright, Culture and Black Music: A Legacy of Unequal Protection." Hastings Communications and Entertainment Law Journal (COMM/ENT) 21(2):339-392.

N. Guy. 2002. "Trafficking in Taiwan Aboriginal Voices." In Handle with Care: Ownership and Control of Ethnographic Materials. S. R. Jaarsma, ed. Pp. 195-210. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.

J. L. Hall. 1995. "Blues and the Public Domain - No More Dues to Pay?" Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA 42(2):215-226.

M. Halloran, ed. 1996. The Musician's Business and Legal Guide. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall/Simon and Schuster.

S. Haun. 1999. "Musical Works, Performance, and the Internet: A Discordance of Old and New Copyright Rules." The Richmond Journal of Law and Technology 4(1).

H. C. Jehoram. 1991. "The Nature of Neighboring Rights of Performing Artists, Phonogram Producers and Broadcasting Organizations." Columbia-VLA Journal of Law and the Arts 15(1):75-92.

S. Jones. 1992. Rock Formation: Music, Technology, and Mass Communication. Newbury Park, California: Sage Publications.

M. Karpeles. 1963. "Communication on Copyright - Statement on Copyright in Folk Music." Western Folklore 22(3).

C. Keil and S. Feld. 1994. Music Grooves: Essays and Dialogues. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

K. Kimiecik. 1992. "Heritage, Folklore, Cultural Conservation, & Policy or What Ever Happened to Child Ballads? Part I." New York Folk Lore Newsletter. 6, 10.
—-. 1993. "UNESCO & the Global Conservation Culture or, I Found the Child Ballads! Part II." New York Folk Lore Newsletter. 6-7.

B. F. Klarman. 1965. "Copyright and Folk Music - A Perplexing Problem." Bulletin of the Copyright Society of U.S.A. (NY). 277-292.

B. Korman and I. F. Koenigsberg. 1986. "Performing Rights in Music and Performing Rights Societies." Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA 33(4):332-367.

D. Laing. 1988. "On Simon Frith's "Copyright and the Music Business"." Popular Music 7(3):337-338.
—-. 1993. "Copyright and the International Music Industry." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. Pp. 22-39. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

N. Lebrecht. 1996. When the Music Stops…: Managers, Maestros and the Corporate Murder of Classical Music. London: Simon and Schuster.

S. Levy. 2000. "Kids vs. Suits: Who Should Own the Music on the Web? The War Over Napster (The Noisy War Over Napster)." Newsweek. 46-53.

H. L. MacQueen and A. Peacock. 1995. "Implementing Performing Rights." Journal of Cultural Economics 19(2):157-175.

K. Malm. 1981. ""Royalties" from the music business support the Swedish folk tradition." Music in Sweden (2).
—-. 1998. "Copyright and the Protection of Intellectual Property in Traditional Music: A Summary of International Efforts." Music Media Multiculture - Today and Tomorrow Report No. 3:24-29.

C. C. Mann. 1998. "Who Will Own Your Next Good Idea?" The Atlantic Monthly 282(3):57-82.

P. Manuel. 1991. "The cassette industry and popular music in North India." Popular Music 10(2):189 - 204.

A. McCann. 1996. "Crosaire airgid don cheol." Dublin: The Irish Times, April 23. Pp. 6.
-. 1999. "Addressing the Social: Irish Traditional Music and the Copyright Debate."
-. 2000. "The Giving: Copyright, Conflict and Cultural Crisis in Irish Traditional Music." The Common Property Resource Digest (51):7-8.
-. 2000a. "Traditional Transmission as Cultural Commons: The Conflicts and Crisis of Commodification."
-. 2001. "All That is Not Given is Lost: Irish Traditional Music, Copyright, and Common Property." Ethnomusicology 45(1):89-106.

D. McGraith. 1990. "Anti-copyright and Cassette Culture." In Sound by Artists. D. Lander and M. Lexier, eds. 73-87. Ontario, Canada: The Coach House Press and Walter Phillips Gallery.

A. Menius. 1994. "At The Microphone: Performing Rights and the Folk Community in the USA." Folk Alliance Newsletter (Winter):24-25.

S. Mills. 1996. "Indigenous Music and the Law: An Analysis of National and International Legislation." //Yearbook for Traditional Music //. 57-86.

T. Mitsui. 1993. "Copyright and Music in Japan: a forced grafting and its consequences." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, eds. 125-145. Edinburgh Law and Society Series. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

M. Moss. 1997. "Who Owns The Songs The Whole World Sings?" Sing Out! 42(1):2.

Negativland. 1996. "Fair use." In Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. 91-94. New York: Autonomedia.

M. Niedzielska. 1980. "The Intellectual Property Aspects of Folklore Protection." Copyright (November 1980):339-346.

J. Oswald. 1996. "Creatigality." In Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. 87-89. New York: Autonomedia.

A. Peacock and R. Weir. 1975. The Composer in the Marketplace. London: Faber Music.

R. Peer. 1984. "The Mechanical Right: A Pragmatic Perspective." Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA 31(4):409-426.

S. Perkins. 1996. "Plagiarism¨: An Interview with the Tape-beatles." In Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. 217-224. New York: Autonomedia.

R. Poe. 1997. "Parodies, Licensing and Copyrights, Oh My!" Sing Out! 42(1):92-93.

H. Reid. 1984. "On Copyrights, Music, & Money."
-. 1993. "ASCAP & BMI - Protectors of Artists or Shadowy Thieves?"
-. 1993. "About the Public Domain (P.D.)."

D. Richards. 1990. "The Copyright Law and the Musician."

K. Ringle. 1996. "ASCAP Changes Its Tune; Never Intended to Collect Fees for Scouts' Campfire Songs, Group Says."

L. Rohter. 1977. "Copyrights: Blues on the Bottom Line, or, Hey, is that Me up there on the Jukebox?" Triad 4(April):20-21.

J. Ryan. 1985. The Production of Culture in the Music Industry - the ASCAP-BMI Controversy. Lanham, Maryland: University Press of America.

R. Sakolsky and F. Wei-han Ho, eds. 1996. Sounding Off!: Music as Subversion/Resistance/Revolution. New York: Autonomedia.

R. Samudrala. 1998. "The Free Music Philosophy."

I. Scott. 1997. "Hand to Mouth." Folk Roots 19(5(November)):23.

M. Scherzinger. 1999. "Music, Spirit Possession and Copyright Law: Cross-cultural Comparisons and Strategic Speculations." Yearbook for Traditional Music. 31:102-125

A. Seeger. 1992. "Ethnomusicology and Music Law." Ethnomusicology 36(3):345-359.
-. 1996. "Ethnomusicologists, Archives, Professional Organizations, and the Shifting Ethics of Intellectual Property." Yearbook for Traditional Music 87-105.
-. 1997. "Traditional Music in Community Life: Aspects of Performance, Recordings and Preservation." Cultural Survical Quarterly 20(4):20-23.

P. Seeger. 1972. The Incompleat Folksinger. New York: Simon and Schuster.
—-. 1997. "Appleseeds." Sing Out! 42(1):76-77.

J. L. Shanahan. 1978. "The Consumption of Music: Integrating Aesthetics and Economics." Journal of Cultural Economics 2(2):13-26.

H. Shields. 1992. Narrative Singing in Ireland: Lays, Ballads, Come-all-yes and Other Songs. Dublin: Irish Academic Press.

S. M. Stewart and H. Sandison. 1993. International Copyright and Neighbouring Rights. London: Butterworths.

P. Théberge. 1993. "Technology, Economy and Copyright Reform in Canada." In Music and Copyright. S. Frith, ed. Pp. 40-66. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.
—-. 1997. Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music/Consuming Technology. Hanover: Wesleyan University Press.

J. Thilman, B. Hartford, B. Haslam and D. Joyce. 1993. "Art and Music Sampling: The Death of Creativity."

D. Thomas. 1967. Copyright and the Creative Artist: The Protection of Intellectual Property with Special Reference to Music. London: Institute of Economic Affairs.

R. Towse. 2001. Creativity, Incentive and Reward: an economic analysis of copyright and culture in the Information Age. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

R. Towse, ed. 2000. Copyright in the Cultural Industries. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.

S. Turk. 1992. "Copyrights and Jazz Improvisation: Creativity Unprotected." The University of Baltimore Intellectual Property Law Journal 1(1):66-75.

M. Tyrell. 1992. Performing Rights - The Price of Pleasure. Dublin: Irish Music Rights Organisation.

L. Ulrich. 2000. "It's Our Property." Newsweek, p. 54.

S. Vaidhyanathan. 2001. Copyrights and Copywrongs: The Rise of Intellectual Property and How It Threatens Creativity. New York: New York University Press.

VirComm. 1998. "The Viral Communications Anti-Copyright Policy."

W. Wadhams. 1990. Sound Advice: The Musician's Guide to the Record Industry. New York: Schirmer Books.

T. Wales. 1973. "Copyright and the EFDSS (Part 2)." English Dance and Song XXXV(Autumn, 3).

R. Wallis and K. Malm. 1984. Big Sounds from Small Peoples: The Music Industry in Small Countries. London: Constable.

A. L. White. 1987. "Popular Music and the Law - Who Owns the Song?" In Lost in Music: Culture, Style and the Musical Event. A. L. White, ed. 164-190. London: Routledge.

D. K. Wilgus. 1961. "All Is Not Nonsense and Hard Cash." Sing Out! 11(1):25.

WIPO. 1997. "Collective Administration of Copyright and Neighbouring Rights - 19 Excellent Principles Defined in 1990 Under the Aegis of WIPO MF 304." (WIPO/MCR/SEV/97/INF.2).

WIPO. 1997. Introduction to Intellectual Property Theory and Practice. London: Kluwer Law International.

B. Ziff and P. V. Rao, eds. 1997. Borrowed Power: Essays on Cultural Appropriation. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.